Life Sciences

Botany is a branch of biology and the science of plant life. Botanists research the evolution of plants, their reproduction, mechanisms, and relationships with the environment and other aspects of life. They perform research and fieldwork, analyse information, and can lecture students or write reports on their findings.

Biomechanics is the application of the laws of physics and the principles used in engineering to the movement and mechanical operation of the human body. It assesses human anatomy concerning the forces exerted on it. The biomechanist analyses the impact of these forces on the body and works on realistic ways to enhance the efficiency of the body, be it an athletic accomplishment or injury prevention.

Agricultural Science is an important branch of science which deals with the study and research of plants and animals to improve farm productivity and agriculture-related industries. This includes research and development on plant genetics, horticulture, soil science, plant breeding, processing strategies such as food production, food security, minimization of the effects of pests and animals, adverse environmental effects, and irrigation.

Diagnostic medical sonographers operate specialised imaging equipment to perform experiments or to generate images to help identify certain medical conditions. Their key responsibilities include taking the medical history and explaining procedures to patients, and planning and operating imaging equipment, reviewing abnormality images, and recording data in patient records.

Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field that includes the use of molecular biology, mathematics, computer science, mathematical modelling for the study of broad biological data sets. Bioinformatics helps to understand biomolecules at the molecular level using various visualisation tools, machine learning, evolutionary genetics, DNA sequencing, drug creation, precision medicine, data processing and interpretation. It is the emerging field of information technology and the artificial intelligence revolution in the country.

Pharmacovigilance plays a crucial role during the different phases of the drug discovery and production process. It is the method of gathering, studying, tracking, analysing and reviewing information obtained directly or indirectly from patients to detect adverse drug reactions and to ensure the safety of medicines. Pharmacovigilance helps to recognise new risks associated with drugs and to provide the public with safer medicines.

Biotechnology is a broad field that can be seen as a part of many other related disciplines, including biochemistry. Biotechnologists strive to understand the functions of biological organisms, from genes to molecular levels and processes at the cellular, to whole organisms. Biotechnologists use this information in ways that can improve the lives of human beings, such as the production of harder crops, the development of better biofuels or the creation of new medicines or disease control treatment plans.

Wildlife Conservation refers to wildlife and habitat preservation activities for the maintenance and recovery of healthy wildlife species or populations and natural environments. Wildlife conservationists pay attention to animal habitats and maintain a healthy habitat for the species. Wildlife Conservers also provide information for the public on how to protect wildlife.

Paleontology is the field of science that focuses on determining the evolution of organisms and their interaction with their surroundings, through studying fossils. A palaeontologist studies the history and mechanism of evolution by looking at fossils, the preserved remains of long-extinct animals and plants. Using evidence from fossilised bones, ancient pollen, and other clues, palaeontologists dig into the knowledge of past climates and past extinctions.

Astrobiologists study the origins of all life forms—from a simple single-celled organism to the most complex multicellular organism like human beings. They study and research the evolution, distribution, and future of these life forms on the Earth and on other planets of the Solar System and beyond. This interdisciplinary area involves a thorough and integrated understanding of biological, planetary, and cosmic phenomena.

Biochemistry attempts to unravel the complex chemical reactions that occur in a wide range of life forms. It provides the basis for practical advancements in medicine, biotechnology, veterinary medicine and agriculture. A biochemist aims to determine how specific molecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, vitamins and hormones, work in these systems. The regulation of chemical reactions in living cells is of particular importance. It causes and covers exciting new areas such as bioengineering and molecular genetics.

The medical laboratory technician collects samples and performs tests on body fluids and tissue to assist physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Technicians design, administer, analyse, compare and ensure the accuracy and validity of laboratory tests and work with other health care practitioners in the diagnosis and treatment of patients.

Archaeologists spend a lot of time in the field researching, digging and studying archaeological objects such as pottery, weapons, coins, or human remains. They also document sites using drawings, detailed notes and photos, interpret observations by grouping, definition and classification. They use computer applications such as computer-aided design (CAD) and geographic information systems (GIS) to document and interpret finds, sites and landscapes.

A Microbiologist focuses on the growth, development, and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungi. They work in laboratories and offices, where scientific experiments are conducted and the results are analyzed.